The University of Arizona

Levels of Illicit Drug Use and Factors Contributing to Use
Factors Underlying Use and Abuse :
Risk Factors for Initiation/Low Use

Some of the risk factors for initiation/low involvement are:[1]

  • Some “problem behaviors,” “bad conduct”
  • Having friends with problem behaviors
  • Having friends who are involved with drugs, particularly friends with “problem behaviors;” peer influences encouraging and facilitating drug involvement
  • Drug availability
  • Unconventionality; rebelliousness
  • Low involvement with traditional value-oriented institutions (i.e. family, religious institutions, school)
  • Poor academic performance
  • Poor quality relations with (and attachment to) parents and/or having parents with problems; poor parenting



  • (1) Samaha A-N, Robinson TE. Why does the rapid delivery of drugs to the brain promote addiction? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2005 Feb;26(2):82-7.